A historic peace deal has just been sealed between Sudan and rebel groups this Saturday, October 3, 2020 in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, during a ceremony. This agreement puts an end to almost two decades of murderous war, that is to say 17 years of armed conflict, a war which left more than 300,000 dead and millions displaced.
Representatives of the Sudanese transitional government and rebel movements, as well as Chadian, Qatari, Egyptian, African Union and United Nations diplomats attended the signing ceremony. This peace agreement was the main issue waiting on the table of the transitional government. This transitional government is headed by Prime Minister Abdallah Hamdok in Khartoum and chaired by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhane. Khartoum was home to a hybrid power of military and civilians that was put in place after a popular uprising in 2019 that ended 30 years of Omar al-Bashir’s dictatorship. The authorities had made peace with the rebels their government priority. Under Al-Bashir, the rebels, mostly ethnic minorities, felt marginalized by the central power in Khartoum. This agreement will bring democracy, justice, freedom to Sudan. It is now the depot of arms for the various groups: The Darfur rebel groups in the west, South Kordofan in the south and the Blue Nile also in the south.
“This signing will really allow us to put the war behind us. It will bring democracy, justice, freedom to Sudan. We are very happy. It is the end of the war and the economy of Sudan will start moving again ”declared a leader of the Sudan Liberation Movement.
There are eight protocols to the agreement: land ownership, transitional justice, reparations and compensation, development of the nomadic and pastoral sector, sharing of wealth, sharing of power and return of refugees and displaced persons. It also provides for the integration of combatants into the regular army, which must be representative of all sections of society. A new fund is provided for in the protocol. It will pay 750 million dollars per year for 10 years to the poor regions of the south and west and the chances of the return of displaced people are also guaranteed and economically develop the areas concerned.
Note that South Sudan has always relied on its oil revenues. The instability and low prices on the oil market since the beginning of 2020 have caused an economic crisis that has cut three quarters of its oil reserves since the country gained independence on July 9, 2011.